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SINDH

By
S. K. Haj Sayed Javadi

Sindh is situated in the south-east of Pakistan. The area of Sindh is about 58,821 sq miles. The population of this province is about 3.5 million. Punjab is in the north, Baluchistan is in the west and India is in the south-east. There is a 150 mile long coast line with the Arabian sea. The Sindh province is actually a part of the delta of Indus and the name Sindh was actually derived from the name of the river “Sandhu”. The Greek historians called it “Indus” and words “Ind” (Hind), and “Indiaare derived from it. Iranians and Arabs used to call the river “Mehran” and that’s why Sindh is famous as “The Mehran valley”.

The ancient civilization and history of the valley of Sindh are known because of findings of Mohenjodaro Amiri and koat Diji. This civilization (1750-2300 B.C.) had a gap of one thousand years. The real History of Sindh begins with the reign of King Daryoush the First (515-520 B.C.). Sindh became directly associated with Iran when it was conqured and became a part of Iran, about two centuries later (326-325 B.C) Alexander the Great attacked Sindh and passed through it.

The soil is fertile along the chains of plains in the middle of the province and the Indus river flows through the middle of it. Rocky chains of Kherthar Mountain is spread towards the west and the desert strip is in the east. Some of the peaks of the Kherthar Mountain are more than seven thousand feet high. The eastern desert area starts from the sand mounds and there is Achrro Thar (white desert) in the middle, Thar is in the south east.

As this region is effected by the Monsoon winds, it truns green after the showers of July and August. The central Mehran valley is 360 miles in length and its area is about 20,000 sq. miles. It is sub-divided into three parts; Ser (Upper), Wicholo’(Central), and laar (Lower), from north to south respectively. Extreme weather conditions are common here. The temperature in summer reaches up to 32 degree and in winter it goes down to 15 degrees. The average rain fall recorded up to 7 inches. The trees of “Babool” are self germinated in this valley. The thick forests here are on both sides of the Indus. Mango, banana, date, guava and oranges are produced here. All these fruits were planted there in 1932 after the construction of barrage.

The language of common people is Sindhi, it is the oldest language of the valley Sriaki and Baluchi languages have also been in use for centuries. Standard Sindhi is spoken in the central part of Sindh. Sindhi language has 5 dialects which include one of Mamon and Kachi language of Kathiawari refugees. Sindhi way of writing is like Arabic Nuskh and numbers are of persian. Moreover, the migrants from the district Baluchistan in the north west speak Brahivi. Other than Sindhi language Dhataki is spoken in the south east of the district Tharparkar which resembles Sindhi and Rajistani. Since inception of Pakistan different languages are spoken in the cities because, people speaking different languages migrated from India. Mostly urdu language is spoken, Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and the second language of the province is Sindhi after urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Gujrati, Rajistani, Pushto, and Malabar are the common languages of the people.

Sindh has some minerals including Limestone, Chalk, Dolomite, Sialicon, Sulphur and seasalt. Similarly coal, Gas and Petroleum are available.

The discovery of the red designed potter, artistic stamps and picture of Dancers from Mohenjodaro in the north and engraved dancing couple in an intermixed fashion on the pottery recovered from Bambhore in the south indicates the presence of local artistic values. The cloth Sindh on (prepared in Sindh) was exported to the western countries, even in ancient times. The pottery of villages of today with fine painting on them remind us of the ancient skill of pottery. They work with the same kind of Bull-drawn cart in the south which was found in Mohenjodaro. The pottery, glazed tile work, works with sealing wax, leather works, Dari making, stiching, embroidery, Rulli making, Ajrak and Khais are examples of the artistic heritage, Fare and Mulla Khara (Sindhi wrestling) are the famous entertainments of the whole region Malh is the different art of Sindhi wrestling and is famous for its class. The cattle cart race and cockfight are the hobbies in the different parts of the region and the structure shows the knowledge in machines which the Sindh valley had in the past and it is better to call it Sindhi wheel than Persian.

The music of Sindh has its old tradition. The old songs “Loras” meaning “Sindhi music”, took it to old Iran where it was famous as music of” Lorian or Lolian “. There are different kinds of musical instruments like Borindo, Chung Cliaproon, Dilovia, Gagar, Yaktawar, Dendo, Bino and Murli. They show the old heritage of music and are still used.

The new tradition of Shahjo tune of musk by Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhatia (1752) gave new dimension to the subjective music which presents the piety rather than mastery over the popular topic of folk stories.

The river Indus has changed its course many times and moved aside from the east to west over the past centuries giving shape to new meadows, plains and cities, but also eroded many lands and populated areas.

Karachi is the capital of Sindh. The second biggest and populated, industrial and agricultural city is Hyderabad. Other important cities are Sakhar, Larkana, Mirpur Khas and Nawab Shah.

Industries like Iron, textile, food, leather, Petroleum etc. are set up here, also Sindh is progressing by leaps and bounds in processing industry Cotton, wheat, fruit, sugarcane and rice.

These are Shrines of renowned Saints in Sindh and people from all over Pakistan come over for pilgrimage.

These are Shrines of Lal Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai in Bit Shah and Sachal Sarmust in Khairpur.

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