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Khoramshahr - Shalamcheh
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The age-long historical relations between the Iranians and the people inhabiting the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent date back to a very remote past. In the splendid civilization of Mohenjodaro and the Sind valley which flourished between 2500 and 1500 B.C., there are visible signs of relationship with the Iranian civilization. The ancient relics, unearthenware, and the marked resemblance in their designs and patterns, are strong evidence in favour of this assertion (1).

The Arrival of Aryans:

This civilization is followed by the arrival of the Aryans in this land. Although the factors that led to this mass migration are not yet fully known, yet the various similarities found in the legends and religious texts of both the people allude to such connection. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that Sanskrit, Old Persian and the Avestan languages are sisters born of the same mother (2). In authentic books of history some reference has been made to the continuous relations of the two people during the days of Medes, Pishdadiyan & Kiyanian. In Avesta too mention has been made of north, India (3).

Fortunately since the Achemenian period we have authentic sources, like the historical monuments of Persepolis (4) which prove that some parts of the sub-continent were among the tributaries of the Central government of Iran, a fact given in detail by Herodotus in his famous historical work (5) .

From Alexander to Sassanids:

After the invasion of Alexander and the subsequent establishment of the Seleucid reign, Sind and some other parts of the Indian sub-continent, which were till then under the dominance of the Achemenians, came under the sway of the Seleucid (6). Following the fall of the Seleucids and the foundation of the Parthian rule (249 B.C.-228 A.D.), the relations between the two people were further enhanced, while the Sassanid period (226-652.A.D) provides an excellent example of cultural affinity between them. In those days Iranians built new cities in the sub-continent. There was an exchange of visits, and inter-marriage also came in vogue between the two people. Some of the historical works have claimed that Bahram Gur, a Sassanian king, (d.438 A.D.), even came on a visit to India (7), and the Iranian kings also chose some of the Indian women as their queens (8). Similarly there are several other examples of very close cultural relations in those days, such as the well-known translation of the Indian book of fables, Kalilah va Dimnah, from Sanskrit to Pahlavi during the reign of Anushiravan, better known as Nowsherwan, the Just, and the arrival of chess in Iran from India (9). So also there is the presence of several Indian translators in Sassanian royal courts (10) and the ever-growing commercial and trade relations between the two countries, followed by the constant trail of trader’s caravans (11).

The Advent of Islam:

With the advent of Islam and the subsequent gradual conversion of the Iranians to Islam, particularly after the extermination of Yezdgard III, the last Sassanian king in 32 A.H./652 A.D. which led to the end of the Sassanian rule in Iran, Iran was annexed to the vast Muslim Empire. Iranians embraced Islam with an open heart, and left no stone unturned in their efforts for the spread and propagation of this divine faith. One of the earliest steps taken in the direction was their joining the armies of the Arab commanders. At first in 44 A.H./664 A.D., they joined the army of Mahlab b. Ali Safrah who went upto Peshawar via Khurasan, Afghanistan and the Khyber Pass (12). Later, they joined the army of Mohammad Bin Qasim Saqafi for the conquest of Sind in 93 A.H/712 A.D. (13). Mohammad bin Qasim had a short sojourn at Shiraz (14) before embarking on his historical mission, and naturally his army consisted of a number of Iranian converts to Islam. Thus, Islam entered the Indian sub-continent via Iran.

Spread of Islam By Iranians:

It may, however, be remembered that Islam could not easily find a root in the hearts of the Indian people. Although a part of the sub-continent was conquered by Mohammad bin Qasim, yet Islam existed here only in name (15). It was only afterwards that Islam spread gradually through Iran by the Iranians, until the Ghaznavid period (351-582 A. H. /962-1186 A. D.) which assumed the position of a point of contact.

Persian Influence in Ghaznavid Period:

Amir Nasiruddin Sabuktakin entered India in 376 A.H/986 A.D. and conquered Peshawar (16), and after him his son, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi (d. 421 A. H./1030 A.D.) made a series of invasions on India. The Ghanavid armies were accompanied by thousands of Iranian scholars, writers, poets and physicians who brought with them the Persian language, customs and usages, and this led to the serious and all-out impact of the Iranian cultural traditions on the Indian culture. So the Iranian culture was effectively grafted on the Indian soil, and, consequently, the ever-existing cordial relations between the two people were further enhanced. It is also considered as the beginning of the influence of Persian language which developed more and more with the passage of time.

The Persian language at first reached Makran from the border areas of Iran, as Ibne Hauqal has pointed out:

“The language of the people of Makran is Persian and Makrani (17).”

Later, from Makran, Persain entered Multan through traders and travellers, where it was hailed by the people. Maqdisi, in his famous book: Ahasan-al-Taqasim, written in 375 A.H./985 A.D., says:

“The people of Multan understand the Persian language (18).”

The rulers of Iranian origin ruled the sub-continent for about eight hundred years starting from the Ghaznavid period to the British period, i.e., upto the year 1273 A.H./1857 A.D. from when the British rule began. The British ruled the sub-continent upto the year 1366 A.H/1947 A.D., the year India and Pakistan were declared separate independent states.

During these eight centuries, the rulers played an important role in the promotion and spread of the Persian language and literature and the Iranian culture in this part of the world. Following are the ruling dynasties in a chronological order.

I. THE GHAZNAVIDS (351-582 A.H./962-1186 A.D.):

Among the Ghaznavids rulers, Sabuktakin (356-387 A.H. /967-997 AD.) is the first who invaded India, and fought against Jaipal, the king of North Western India, and conquered and added to his domain Peshawar and a part of the Punjab (19). He died at the age of 56 years on his way back to Ghazni.

He was succeeded by his son, Mahmud. During his reign, Mahmud invaded India about seventeen times, and brought to the Indian sub-continent along with his army a number of people of different trades and professions including craftsmen, theologians, poets, writers, astronomists and astrologers as the representatives of the Islamic Iranian civilization (20).

Lahore-Centre of Persian:

In the last days of the Ghaznavids, Lahore assumed the position of an important centre of Persian knowledge, literature, art and mysticism, and came to be known as “the Second Ghazni”. The courts of the later Ghanavid kings became the centres of attraction for the Persian poets, scholars and writers who composed poetry and compiled books in the Persian language (21). Likewise, the number of those who were engaged in this part in the propagation of Islam for the sake of attaining divine favour also increased day by day.

Role of Sufis in Spread of Islam & Persian:

Keeping in view the historico-intellectual traditions of the people of this region, the mystics and Sufis played an important role in the dissemination of Islam in these areas. Their arrival in this part and compilation of a number of books and treatises on Islamic Sufism in Persian had an effective contribution in the development and promotion of Persian language in these territories.

Shaykh Ali Hujviri (22) (d.circa 481 A.H. /1088 A.D.), author of Kashful Mahjub, arrived in Lahore in 431 A.H./1040 A.D., and wrote the first work on Islamic Sufism in Persian prose. This book is considered to be the earliest book written in Persian prose in Pakistan (rather in the Indo-Pak sub-continent).

The Ghaznavids ruled for about 224 years when at last the Ghoris put an end to their rule. Following are the Ghaznavid rulers who ruled over Lahore (23).

  1. Sultan Mahmud, Yaminuddaulah, son of Sabuktakin, (405-421) A.H/1014-1 030 AD.)
  2. Muhammad, Jalaluddaulah, son of Mahmud, (421 A.H/1030 A. D.)
  3. Masud, Shahabuddaulah son of Mahmud, (421-433 A.H/1030-1042 AD.)
  4. Maudud, son of Masud, (433-441 A.H/1042 -1049 A.D.)
  5. Masud II son of Maudud, (441 A.H/l049 A.D.)
  6. Ali Abul Hasan, Baha’uddaulah, son of Masud, son of Maudud, (441-443 A.H. / 1049-1051 A.D.)
  7. Abdur Rashid, Azduddaulah,son of Mahmud, (443-444 A. H./1051-1052 A.D.)
  8. Tughril, (the Usurper), (443, A.H./1051 A.D.)
  9. Farrukhzad, Jamaluddaulah, son of Masud, son of Mahmud (444-451A.H/1052-1059 A.D)
  10. Ibrahim, Zahiruddaulah, brother of Farrukhzad, (451-492 A.H. /1059-1099 A.D.)
  11. Masud 111, Alauddaulah, son of Ibrahim (492-508 A.H./1099-1114 A.D.)
  12. Shirzad, Azududdaulah, son of Masud, son of Ibrahim, (508-509 A.H./1114-1115 A.D.)
  13. Arsalan Shah, Sultanuddaulah, son of Masud III, (509-512 A.H./1115-1118 A.D)
  14. Bahram Shah, Yaminuddaulah, son of Masud, (512-547A.H/1118-1152 A.D.)
  15. Khusrau Shah, Tajuddaulah, son of Bahram Shah, (547-555 A.H./1152-1161 A.D.)
  16. Khusrau Malik, Sirajuddaulah, son of Khusrau Shah, (555-582 A.H./1160-1186 A.D.)

The Ghuz Turks snatched Ghazni from Khosrau Shah in 555 A.H./1160 A.D., and thenceforward, the Ghaznavid dominion was confined to Western India, with its capital in Lahore.

Persian Poets of Ghaznavid Period:

As already said, a number of poets, writers, scholars and Sufis flourished in the Indian sub-continent under the patronage of the Ghaznavid rulers. During this period, the first poet who compiled his Diwan in Persian was Abul Faraj Runi, son of Masud, who according to Aufi, was born and brought up in Lahore (24), while according to some other historians he was born at Runa, a village in the province of Khurasan, Iran. But certainly, like Masud Sa’d Salman, he was born and brought up in Lahore (25). He occupies the position of an “ustad” (master) among the poets of his time, like Masud Sa’d and Anwari, both of whom mention his name with great reverence. Masud Sa’d for example, says

تا شاد گردد این دل ناشاد من


ای خواجه بوالفرج نکنی یاد من

شادم بدانکه هستی استاد من (26)


نازم بدانکه هستم شاگرد تو

“0 Khwajah (A) bol Faraj, you do not bring me to your memory, So that it may be a source of joy for my aggrieved heart.

I am proud of being your disciple.

lam glad that you are my master.”

Similarly, Anwari says:

تابدیدستم ولوعی داشستم بس تمام (27)


باد معلومش که من بنده به شعر بوالفرج

 “It must be known to him that I have been extremely fond of (A) bul Faraj’ s poetry Right from the time I have come to see it.”

The first Persian poetess, living in this period in this region, was Rabi’a, daughter of Ka’b Quzdari, (قزداری ) who has been a predecessor of Abul Faraj Runi, and among the famous poets of the 4th Century A.H (10th Century A.D) (28). Jami has mentioned her among the Sufi women of her time (29). According to some historians, she belonged to the suburbs of Balkh (30). But on the basis of the latest research, it is established that she belonged to the area of Sind of present Pakistan which was also spelled as Khuzdar (خضدار ) or Quzdar (قضدار) (31).

The other prominent poets of the Ghaznavid period are Masud b. Sa’d b. Salman, Usman Mukhtari, Sayyid Hasan Ghaznavi and Sana’ i Ghaznavi.

Beginning of Ghori. Rule:

In the year 582 A.H./1186 .A.D. Khusrau Malik, the last Ghaznavid ruler of Lahore surrendered himself to Sultan Mu’izzuddin Muhammad, son of Sam Ghori, and was thrown into prison (33). Sultan Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghori laid the foundation of the Ghori rule in India. In 588 A.H./1192 A.D, he conquered Delhi, and thus, extended the influence of Persian to Delhi and its adjoining areas. The Ghoris ruled over India until the year 602 A.H./1206 A.D. (34) and extended their dominion to Bengal.


After the fall of Ghoris, five dynaties, known as the Sultans of Delhi, ruled this region.

FIRST-THE MAMLUKS (OR SLAVES),(602-689 A.H./1206-1290 A.D.):

The most important rulers among the Mamluks (or the Slaves) was Sultan Shamsuddin Altutmish who defeated Sultan Nasiruddin Qabachah, King of Sind and patron of Muhamad Aufi, author of the well-known Taz-kerah of poets, Lubabul Albab, and another book Jawami-ul-Hikayat (35). He, at last, defeated Sultan Ghiyasuddin, king of Bengal, and got the approval of Caliph Mustansir Abbasi, (623-641 A.H./1226-1243 A.D.) as the ruler of India.

Razia-The First Muslim Queen:

The first Muslim queen of the sub-continent, Sultana Razia who ruled from 628 A.H. /1231 A. D. to 644 A.H./1246 A.D. was the daughter of Sultan Altutmish.

The last important ruler of this dynasty was Ghiyasuddin Balban who ascended to the throne in 663A.H/1265A.D. His son, prince Ala’uddin Muhammad, known with the title of Qa’anul Mulk Shahid, was the patron of Amir Khusrau Dehlavi and Khwaja Hasan Dehlavi who composed their panegrics in his praise (36). It was in his days that Multan became a great centre of Persian language. The author of Nuzhatul Khawatir says that he invited Shaykh Sa’di to Multan (37) and also adds that in his court were always recited the Shahnama of Firdausi, the Diwans of Khaqani and Anwari, the of Nizami and the poetry of Amir Khusrau.

The Ghoris & Mamluks:

Following is the table showing the names of the Ghori and Mamluk kings in a chronological order (38).

  1. Muhammad Ghori, Shahabuddin, (582-602 A.H./1186-1206 A.D.)
  2. Qutbuddin Aibak, (602-607 A.H. /1206-1210 A.D.)
  3. Aram Shah, (607 A.H./1211 A.D).
  4. Shamsuddin Altutmish, (607-633 A.H./1211-1236 A.D.).
  5. Ruknuddin Firuz Shah, (633-634 A.H. /1236 A.D.)
  6. Razia Sultana, (634-637 A.H. /1236-1240 A.D.)
  7. Bahram Shah, Mu’izzuddin, (637-639/1240-1242 A. D.)
  8. Masud Shah, Alauddin, (639-644 A.H. /1242 -1244 A.D.)
  9. Mahmud Shah, Nasiruddin, (644-664 A.H./1246-1266 A.D.)
  10. Balban, Ghiyasuddin, (664-686 A.H./1266-1287 A.D.)
  11. Kaiqobad, Muizzddin, (686-689 A.H./1287-1290 A.D.)
  12. Kayumars (Kaika’us), Shamsuddin, (689 A.H./1290 A.D.)

SECOND-THE KHILJIS (1689-1720 A.H./1290-1320 A.D.):

The second dynasty of the Delhi rulers is that of the Khiljis. The founder of this dynasty was Jalaluddin Firuz who ascended the throne of Delhi in 689 A.H./1290 A.D.

Following is the table showing the names of the Khilji kings in a chronological order: (39)

  1. Firuz Shah II, Jalaluddin, (689-695 A.H. /1290-1295 A.D)
  2. Ibrahim Shah, Ruknuddin, (695 A.H./1295 A.D.)
  3. Muhammad Shah I, Ala’uddin, (695-715 A.H./1295-l316 A.D.)
  4. Umar Shah, Shahabuddin, (715-716 A.H./1316 A.D.)
  5. Mubarak Shah, Qutbuddin, (716-720/1316-1320 A.D.)
  6. Khusrau Shah, Nasiruddin, (720 A.H./1320 A.D.)

During the reign of the Khiljis Islam, Persian language and the Iranian culture reached the remotest corners of the sub-continent. Jalaluddin Firuz Shah, the founder of this dynasty, was himself a Persian poet, & patronised the Iranian artists. It was during this period that the scholars, theologians and artists from different parts of Iran, like Tabriz, Isfahan and Ray thronged the courts of the Khilji kings and received rich gifts and rewards from the rulers of this dynasty for their works of art and literature (40).

THIRD- THE TUGLAQS (720-814A.H./1320-1414 A.D.):

The third dynasty of rulers who ruled over Delhi was that of the Tughlaqs. The most well-known of these rulers was Sultan Muhammad (d. 752 A.H. / 135l A.D.) During this period Persian language became very popular among the people. Ibne Batuta who visited Delhi in 733 A.H./1333 A.D. and was appointed Qazi of the city, in his Safarnama (or Travelogue) (41) mentions a strange event, which alludes to the extra-ordinary influence of Persian language in this region in those days. Ibne Batuta says that, in one of the cities of this area, he saw a Hindu woman whom the people wanted to burn alive with the body of her deceased husband. He saw the woman exclaiming in Persian:

" ما را از آتش می ترسانی، من می دانم او آتش است، رها کن ما را"

“Do you want to frighten us from the fire. I know that He is fire. Leave us alone!”

Bulbul Shah & Shahe Hamadan:

During the Tughlaq period, Sayyid Sharifuddin Bulbul Shah Turkistani, better known as Bulbul Shah Suhrawardi, (d. 727 A.D/1327A.D.), the first missionary of Islam and also the first promoter of Persian (in the region) came to Kashmir, and engaged himself in the mission of dissemination and propagation (of Islam) (42).

After Bulbul Shah, Mi Sayyid Ali Hamadani, (713-786 A.H. /1313-1383 A.D.), in the company of seven hundred persons from among his disciples and friends including some artisans, entered Kashmir, and started providing religious guidance and instruction, including naturally greater promotion and spreading of Persian language, among the people and rulers of Kashmir (43). The artisans accompanying him also started (teaching and training in) the Iranian arts. Thus, by and by the Iranian arts came to be learnt by the people of the sub-continent, as their evidence is clearly discernible even today in the various fields of art like painting, calligraphy, carpet industry, fabrics, architecture, etc.

Invasion of Taimur:

During the reign of Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, (797-815 A.H./1395-1 414 A.D.), Amir Taimur Gurkani invaded India, and as a result of this invasion the Tughlaq rule, at last, came to an end in 816 A.H./1414 A.D.


The fourth and fifth dynasties of the Sultans of Delhi were the Sadat (817 -855 A.H./1414-1451 A.D.) and the Lodis (855-933 A.H./1457-1526 A.D.). One of the most important rulers of this period was Sikandar Lodi, who spread the Iranian culture and Persian language even among the Hindus. The author of Tarikh-i-Firshte in this connection writes: (43)

“In these days learning became popular, and the nobles, the elite and the soldiers occupied themselves in the attainment of various intellectual accomplishments. Even the infidels, who till then kept themselves away from learning Persian, engaged themselves in learning how to read and write the Persian script.”

Following is the list of the Sadat and Lodi rulers in a chronological order (44)

  1. Khizr Khan (817-824 A.H./1414-1421 A.D.)
  2. Mubarak Shah II, Mu’izzuddin (824-837 A.H. /1421-1434 A.D.)
  3. Muhammad Shah IV, (837-847 A.H. /1434-1444 A.D.)
  4. Ala’uddin, son of Alam Shah, (847-849 A.H. /1445-1448 A.D.)
  5. Bahlol Lodi (852-894 A.H./1448-1489 A.D.)
  6. Sikandar II, son of Bahlol (894-923 A.H. /1489-1517 A.D.)
  7. Ibrahim II, son of Sikandar, (923-932 A.H. /1517-1526 A.D.)

Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty, was defeated by Babur Badshah Gurkan4 who founded the Mughal empire in India.


During the sixth century A.H. (twelfth century A.D.) parts of the Indo-Pak sub-continent were ruled simultaneously by independent Muslim rulers and Hindu Rajahs. Following is the list of those Muslim dynasties (45).

  1. The Governors and Sultans of Bengal, (599-984 A.H./1203-1576 A.D.)
  2. The Sultans of Eastern Jaunpur, (796-905 A.H. /1394-1500 A.D.)
  3. The Sultans of Malwa, (804-927 A.H. /1401 -1530 A.D.)
  4. The Sultans of Gujrat, (799-980 A.H. /1396-1572 A.D.)
  5. The Kings of Kashmir, (715-995 A.H. /1334-1587 A.D.)
  6. The Sultans of Khandesh or the Faruqis, (801-1008 A.H. /1399-1599 A.D.)
  7. The Bahmani Sultans of Gulbarga, (748-933 A.H. /1347-1526 A.D.)

The gradual extinction of the Bahmani dynasty was followed by its replacement by the following five dynasties who divided the Bahmani dominions among themselves in the following manner:

8)     The Imad Shahs of Berar, (890-980 A.H./1484-1572 A.D.)

9)     The Nizam Shahs of Ahmad Nagar (896-1004 A.H. /1490-1595 A.D.)

10)The Barid Shah of Bidar, (897-1018 A.H/1492-1609 A.D.)

11)The Adil Shahs of Bijapur, (895 -1097 A.H./1489-1686 A.D.)

12)The Qutb Shahs of Golconda, (918-1098 A.H./1512-1687 A.D.) (46)

Persian During The Sultans:

The Persian language and literature as well as the Iranian Islamic culture flourished in the courts of these Sultans and the cities of Lahore, Multan, Delhi, Deccan and Jaunpur as well as in Bengal, Gujrat and Kashmir, and gradually Islam spread far and wide in these areas. But the golden period was certainly the period of the Mughal empire which was founded after the invasion of Taimur in the Indo-Pak sub-continent.

IV. THE MUGHAL PERIOD (932-1275 A.H./I526-1857 A.D.):

The Mughal emperors ruled this sub-continent from 932 A.H. /1526 A.D. to 1275 A.H./1857 A.D. During the span of three and a half centuries of their rule Persian language flourished in this region along with the other regional languages.

Following is the list of the rulers of this golden age of Muslim rule in the Indo-Pak sub-continent: (48)

1)     Babur Shah, Zahiruddin, (932-937 A.H./1526-1530 A.D.)

2)     Humayun, Nasiruddin, (937-963 A.H./1530-1556 A.D.)

3)     Akbar, Jalaluddin, (963-1014 A.H./1556-1605 A.H.)

4)     Jahangir, Nuruddin, (1014-1037 A.H./1605-1628 A.D.)

5)     Shah Jahan, Shahabuddin, (1037-1069 A.H./1628-1658 A.D.)

6)     Aurangzeb Alamgir, Muhyuddin, (1059-1118 A.H./1659-1707 A.D.)


This king, who is the founder of this dynasty, was born in Farghana in the year 887 A.H./1483 A.D. He claimed to be the fifth in the line of descent of Taimur, (generally known as Tamerlane). Fortunately his work Tuzuk-i- Baburi has come down to us. His mother tongue was Chughtai Turkish, but he loved Persian, and would also sometimes compose poetry in this language. The members of his family took great interest in Persian, and his daughter Gulbadan Begum, wrote the “Humayun Nama’ in Persian.

We find fourteen couplets in Persian, in Tuzuk-i-Baburi, while his Turkish Diwan contains sixty-one Persian couplets. The following famous couplet in Persian was also composed by Babur:

نوروز و نوبهار می و دلبری خوشست


بابر به عیش که عالم دوباره نیست

(The Nauruz(or the New Year’s Day), the early spring, wine and a sweetheart are a source of joy.

Babur, try to enjoy yourself, as (the life in) the world is given but once).

There were a large number of Persian poets in Babur’s court (49)

He put down the revolts and opposition against himself and extended his dominion from Bukhara to the Arabian Sea and the eastern border of Bihar (50).

Babur died in the year 937 A.H. /1530 A.D., and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun.


After the defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri Afghan, he fled to Iran, and as a result of military help by Shah Tahmasp Safavi, (930-984 A.H./1524-1576 A.D.), he was able to return to India, accompanied by a number of Iranian scholars and poets, and after defeating Sikandar Shah, brother of Sher Shah Suri, he entered Delhi triumphantly. He later reoccupied Agra and other territories, and died in 963 A.H./1556 A.D. After his death, his son, Akbar, a youth of fourteen, occupied the throne.

It was during the reign of Humayun that due to the acquaintance and long stay of himself and his family in Iran, the number of poets, writers, scholars and Sufis, who migrated to the sub-continent, increased gradually. He composed poetry in Persian, like the following famous Persian couplet:

اگر به پرسش عشاق می نهد قدمی


هزارجان گرامی فدای هرقدمش (52)

(If the sweetheart comes to enquire after the health of lover Thousands of persons will be ready to sacrifice their valuable lives for every step the sweetheart takes in this direction).

A Diwan of Persian poetry is also attributed to him, a manuscript of which is available even today (53).


Akbar ruled the sub-continent for about half a century. He was unparalletled as regards the special attention paid and interest taken by him in Persian poetry and patronization of the Iranian scholars. In this period, Iranian poets migrated to the sub-continent in great numbers. Akbar for the first time appointed a poet as Poet-Laureate in his court. His first Poet-Laureate was Ghazzali Mashhadi (d. 981 A.H./1573 A.D.), who was followed by Faizi Akbarabadi. Some of the nobles of his court, like Abdur Rahim Khan-e-Khanan, also made an important contribution in the development and spread of the Persian language and the Iranian culture (54). Following is the reference in Akbar Name with regard to the special interest taken in Persian in those days (55).

“Thousands of those who composed poetry were present in the court of His Majesty (i.e. Akbar, the Great).”

4- Jahangir:

Following the marriage of Jahangir to Nur Jahan, the daughter of an Iranian noble, Mirza Ghiyasuddin Beg Tehrani, influence of the Iranian language and literature in this sub-continent increased considerably. The Iranian art and architecture also gained popularity extensively. Jahangir had a good pen in Persian prose and poetry” “Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri” is his extant auto-biography in Persian. Talib Amuli, a well-known poet of this period, was the Poet-Laureate of his court.

5-Shah Jahan:

His period is characterized by the glory of the Iranian culture and art in the sub-continent. The Iranian architecture and Persian inscriptions on the various buildings became extensively popular in the sub-continent in his days. A large number of forts, gardens and mosques were built during his period, like the Taj Mahal in Agra, the Jami Masjid in Delhi and the Shalimar Garden in Lahore. The famous poets of his time are Abu Talib Kalim, poet laureate of his court, Qudsi Mashhadi and Sa’ib Tabrizi.

6-Aurangzeb Alamgir:

He ascended the throne after his father, Shah Jahan, and ruled for about half a century. Although he had little interest in poetry, and most of his time passed in military expeditions, Persian prose did make a lot of headway during his reign. ‘Ruqqa’at-i-Alamgiri” (the Letters of Alamgiri) written by him are a brilliant example of Persian essays. His daughter, Zebun Nisa, is known for her Persian poetry and her Persian Diwan is available even today.

Persian After Aurangzeb:

With the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal power also declined in the sub-continent, and his eleven successors who ascended the throne of Delhi one after another could not keep the vast empire intact. Persdian, however, retained its popularity as before, and Mirza Asadullah Ghalib, (d. 1285 A.H./1869 AD.) (57), belonged to this period. Ghalib is a distinguished poet of Persian and Urdu and his Diwans in Persian and Urdu have been published several times. He always talked high of his Persian poetry, and in comparison to his Urdu poetry, he says:

فارسی بین تا ببینی نقشهای رنگ رنگ


بگذر از مجموعۀ اردو که بی رنگ من است

فارسی بین تا بدانی کاندر اقلیم خیال


مانی ارژنگم و آن نسخه ارتنگ من است

(Look at my Persian poetry if you want to see a variety of pieces of art.

Don’t pay any heed to the collection of my Urdu poetry as it is devoid of colour and attraction.

Look at the Persian (Diwan) so that you may know that in the realm of thought,

I am Mani, (or Manes), the author of Arzhang, and this Persian Diwan is my Arzhang (or Artang).)

V- THE BRITISH PERIOD (1273-1366 A.H./1857-1947 A.D.):

During this period, (Urdu also gained popularity and prominence among the people of the sub-continent. Gradually with the establishment of the British rule in this region, foundation was laid for the gradual decline of Persian language, which was soon replaced by English and Urdu.

The British imperialists left no stone unturned in destroying even the last remnants of Persian in this area, but all their endeavours failed at least in the sphere of Persian poetry. Persian poets like Shibli Numani, Guerami and most of all, Allama Dr. Sir Mohammad Iqbal, (1294-1356 A.H./1877-1938 A.D) played an important role in the preservation and popularity of the Persian language in the sub-continent in this period.

VI-POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD (1366 A.H./ 1947 A.D. to date):

After the independence of Pakistan till this day, although the popularity of the Persian language has been constantly on the wane, yet it has not been completely banished from this country.

During the period of independence movement, the leaders of Pakistan movement paid great attention to Persian language. About half a century ago, English words and terms had not so commonly and profusely made inroads into the Urdu language, and instead Persian words and phrases were in vogue among the people in general. For example, all the words used in the national Anthem of Pakistan, composed in Urdu by Hafiz Jalandhari (1318-1402 A.H./1900-1982 A.D) are Persian except, indeed, a single word “کا’’ (meaning “of”). Seepage No.23-71.

Hafiz Jalandhari has been a famous poet of Urdu, and he is the disciple of one of the leading Persian poets of present century of the area now forming Pakistan. His name is Ghulam Qadir Guerami (1272-1345 A.H./1856-1927). Guerami happened to be one of the close friends of Allama Iqbal (58). The following couplet of Guerami, composed in praise of Allama Iqbal, is well- known:

در دیده معنی نگران حضرت اقبال


پیغمبری ای کرد و پیمبر نتوان گفت

(In the eyes of those having an insight into the meanings (of poetry),

Hazrat Iqbal has done the job of a prophet, yet he cannot be called a prophet.)

Quaid-e-Azarn Mohammad Ali Jinnah was also familiar with Persian language. He had read Persian at school and it was through Persian that he became familiar with Urdu.

Mr. Khurshid-ul-Hasan one of his close friends who has been his Private Secretary for three and a half years during the fateful years between 1944 and 1947 when the battle for Pakistan was fought and won, has written a book in English entitled “Memories of Jinnah”. It is edited by Khalid Hasan and published by Oxford University Press, Karachi, in 1990.

We quote from the Urdu paragraph on page 39 of the book which reads as follows:-

“Here one day, while we were disposing of some papers, he (Mr. Jinnah) told me that when he was at school in Karachi he had read Persian. The book he mentioned was Aquaid-i-Latif and some others, but added that later he had lost all touch with the language. He had never read Urdu as such, though undoubtedly his knowledge of Persian had faimiliarized him with the script. He demonstrated this by reading out a few lines from an Urdu press clipping which a correspondent had sent him, though he did not do it without difficulty.”

Iran-First Country to Recognize Pakistan:

The first country which officially recognized Pakistan just after its independence was Iran. In the official agreements and treaties, signed between Iran and Pakistan, even in those early days, the earliest of them being the Treaty of Friendship, between Iran and Pakistan signed in 1950 A.D. special reference has been made to the age-long cultural relations and common legacy of the two countries. Later, in the cultural agreement signed between the two parties, the first of which relates to 1956 the matters relating to culture and Persian language have particularly been emphasized. In the wake of these agreements, the government of Iran adopted a number of measures for the promotion of Persian in this country.

Cultural Centres:

The Office of the Cultural Counsellor of the Iranian Embassy which was officially established in 1952 in Karachi, with the active cooperation of some Pakistani professors like Prof. Dr. Ghulam Sarwar, was able to set up an Iranian Cultural Centre at Karachi. Subsequently similar Cultural Centres were founded at Lahore, Multan, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta and Rawalpindi with the sole object of spreading the Iranian culture and the Persian language. Similarly, the Iran-Pakistan Persian Studies Centre, Islamabad, with its rich collection of books in the Ganj Bakhsh Library, has been actively engaged in the various activities relating to the dissemination of Persian language in this region.

Cultural Activities After Islamic Revolution:

Even after the successful Islamic revolution in Iran, the object of promotion of Persian language has particularly been focussed in all the official agreements signed between the two countries. In the different paragraphs of the programme for cultural, scientific and technical exchange, officially ratified by the Governments of Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, special reference has been made to the need for paying attention to Persian language and literature, and full agreement reached thereon.

In view of the same programme, the Office of the Cultural Counsellor of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Islamabad, as its legal duty and responsibility, has taken up the preparation and compilation of the present book, so that it may serve as a step, though small, in the way of materialisation of the above objectives. The Cultural Centres of the Islamic Republic of Iran have also been fulfilling the same functions, as far as possible, in the different towns of this country through opening classes for teaching Persian, etc.


As already mentioned, until before the establishment of the British government, the sweet language of Persian had been the official language in this region. It was also considered to be a religious language, as the people of the sub-continent had learnt Islam through the Iranian scholars, mystics and traders as well as the Persian literature on Islam. Although in the last days of the Mughal empire, after the invasion of Nadir Shah, a number of the Iranian soldiers stayed behind in this region, and, naturally, they were effective in the promotion of Persian in this area, yet it must be remembered that military expeditions have never played any important role in the spread of Persian, and what has been effective in this respect and in harmony with the soft and tender feelings and psyche of the people of this region, was the role of the Iranian scholars, mystics, businessmen, poets and the love for literature in the Mughal kings, nobles, and princes who had developed in themselves an Iranian and eastern character as well as the age-old cultural ties which had existed between the two people.

During this period hundreds of books had been writted by the poets and scholars of the sub-continent and added to the rich treasure of books in Persian. These books may be divided into the following branches.

1-Books on History:

The history of this period had been written invariably in Persian in the sub-continent. So if a Person wants to study or write the history of India and Pakistan relating to the Muslim period, he has to be well-versed in Persian. In the Persian Lexicography in India and Pakistan (Farhang Nevisiye Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan) by Dr. Ba-Haider Shahryar Naqavi, more than sixty books of history have been mentioned, such as Iqbal Nameye Jahangfri Akbar Name, Babur Name, Tarikh-i-Punjab, Thrik-i-Firuzshahi, Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, Tarikh-i-Firishte and Tarikh-i-Adil Shahi.

2-Anthologies and Diwans of Poets:

There have been thousands of Persian poets in the sub-continent. Even now a large number of Urdu poets also compose poetry in Persian. In the farsi Guyane Pakistan by Dr. Sayyid Sibte Hasan Rezavi, biographies and poetical selections of 74 poets of Persian of post-Iqbal period have been given, a number of whom have compiled their Diwans in Persian (62).

The First Conference of the Persian Poets of Pakistan, organized by the office of the Cultural Counsellor of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamabad, in November 1991 in Rawalpindi, in which a large number of Persian poets from different areas of Pakistan participated, was a clear proof to the effect that the sun of Persian poetry has not yet set in this region.

During the last one thousand years a large number of collections and Diwans of the Persian poets have been published in the sub-continent, and their biographies and poetical selections have appeared in the anthologies known as “Tazkeras” written in this part of the world. In the Tazkere-Nevisiye Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan (63) the names and particulars of more than one hundred Persian Tazkeras of Persian poets of this region have been given, such as Lubabul Albab, Jawahirul Aja’ BI, Nafaisul Maasir, Majma ‘ul Fuzala, Khulasatul Ash‘ar, Arafatul Ashiqin, Riyazush Shu’ara, Maqalatush Shu‘aram, Suhuf-i-Ibrahim, Makhzanul Ghara’ ib, Haft Iqlim, etc.


Persian Dictionaries are among the most important works compiled in this sub-continent. There have been more than one hundred Persian dictionaries compiled in this area, the names and particulars of which have been given in the farhang Nevisiye Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan, the most well-known among them are Ghiyasul Lughat, Farhang-i-Anand Raj, Haft Qulzum, Firuzul Lughat, Jewahirul Masadir, Burhan-i-Qati, Madarul Afazil, Farhang-i-Jahangiri, Farhang-i-Rashidi and Mu’ayyadul Fuzala.

4-Miscellaneous Books:

There are a large number of books written on different subjects in Persian, such as the religious subjects like the exegeses of the Qur’an, ,mysticism and. Sufism, biography, Islamic history, Persian stories, Persian and Arabic Grammar, Sciences like Medicine, Philosophy, Logic, Arts, Calligraphy, and such other subjects, the lists of which, citing their manuscripts and printed editions, have been compiled in several volumes (64). The Naval Kishore Press, Lucknow, has published hundreds of Persian books during the last two centuries. Similarly, there have been several centres of publication and sale of Persian books in Bombay, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Delhi, Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar. For example, we have the famous Qissa Khwani Bazar in Peshawar which is considered to be one of the leading markets of Persian books in the sub-continent. We have several such centres, the names of which have been mentioned on the title pages of the Persian books, published in the various places in the sub-continent.


Besides these books we find that there are a large number of royal edicts (Farmans), the gates of the Government buildings, mosques, mausoleums and shrines, tombstones, in all of which Persian language has been used. So also there are some sporadic notes inscribed by the people on the waits of various places which are part of history, and, therefore, they are also important from historical point of view. Unfortunately, these historical relics of Persian, which are certainly the living monuments of the common cultural legacy of Iran and Pakistan, have been lying in a state of complete oblivion and neglect The old inscriptions and petrographs are, by and by, subjected to annihilation and disappearance due to the clemency of nature, passage of time and pilferage by the cultural relics-mongers. The interest taken and attention paid by the people for their preservation have also not proved very fruitful.

Back Ground of the Relations of the two Countries

The relations of the two countries of Iran and Pakistan initiated with the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and recognition of Pakistan by the Govt of Iran. Iranian Embassy being opened in Karachi and he Govt authorities of the two countries started visiting each other many times. In 1949 the Emperor of Iran visited Pakistan and the mutual friendship pact was signed by the two sides.

Text of the friendship treaty

Iran –Pakistan mutual relations took a new shape in the year 1955 following their attaining membership in the Baghdad pact and thereafter entering the Cento pact in 1958.
Besides the two countries of Iran and Pakistan developed special relations in the field of economy, culture, and mutual technological assistance through their cooperation through the RCD prgrammes.
And this pact was in force up till the change of regime into an Islamic Republic and so Iran and Pakistan mutually cooperated and co-coordinated through this pact.
Iran played a role of mediator in putting an end to the opacity and displeasure between Pakistan and Afghanistan, and similarly took up mediator role between Pakistan and India on Kashmir issue and then inter relations of Iran and Pakistan in the Cultural and economical fields and their mutual political relations continued on.
Pakistan, following the change of Iranian regime to an Islamic Republic, was the first ever country to recognize it officially. Presently the relations of the two countries are on the peak level. Pakistan, from the very beginning of the thrusted Iraq war upon Iran remained against the same.
The peak of the expansion of friendly relations of Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic Republic of Pakistan came about with the visit of Hazrat Ayat ullah Khamnai, the then president of Iran, who was warmly greeted by Mohammad Zia ul Haq, the then President of Pakistan, and other statesmen of the country. This gave positive results regarding consolidating the love and mutual relations of the two sides.
The political relations of Islamic Republic of Iran and Islamic Republic of Pakistan continues on the loftiest level in various fields including the journey of political delegations, holding of various conferences and exhibitions, sending of mutual messages which are multidimensional and of a wide level. Similarly no point of ambiguity resulting from coldness of relations exists as regards the cultural and commercial relations and the organization of pacts, agreements and memorandums of mutual understandings.


Relating to the signed of the Treaty of Friendship between the Government of Pakistan and the Imperial Government of Iran
On 18th February 1950 at 12 A.M, a meeting consisting of the Plenipotentiaries of the Government:
For the Government of Pakistan:
His Excellency Mr. Ghazanfar Ali Khan,
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary,
For the Government of Iran:
His Excellency Dr. Ali Akbar Siassi,
Minister for Foreign Affairs, took place at the imperial Ministry for Foreign Affairs, after verifying the conformity of the Persian and English texts of each of two copies, the above mentioned Plenipotentiaries signed the Treaty and affixed thereto their seals.

For the Government of Pakistan                     For the Imperial
                                                                    Government of Iran,

Ghazanfar Ali Khan                                          Dr. Ali Akbar Siassi
Abmassdor Extraordinary                    Minister of Foreign Affairs And Plenipotentiary
Embassy of Pakistan Tehran

Article I
The two high contracting parties shall establish in their respective countries peace and permanent friendly relations between Iran and Pakistan and between their respective citizens.

Article II
The two high contracting parties agree to establish and maintain diplomatic and consular relations in conformity with international principals and practices, and also agree that the diplomatic and consular representatives of other country shall receive in the territory of the other, the treatment, in accordance with international principles and practices, accorded to the diplomatic and consular representatives of most favored nations, provided it is based on reciprocity.

Article III
The two high contracting parties agree to execute special agreement in the basis of complete reciprocity relating to consular, trade, customs, merchant shipping and civil aviation matter and cultural relations. They also agree to execute an extradition treaty and treaties in respect of the residence and sojourn of their respective nationals in the territories of other country.

Article IV
The two high contracting parties agree that all disputes, of whatever nature they may be, arising between shall be settled by friendly means through the usual diplomatic channels in a peaceful manner and with in a reasonable space of time. Each party reserves the right in such bases to propose the procedure to be followed. Likewise, both parties agree that in the event of their acceptance of the jurisdiction of the international court of justice they may, whenever necessary, refer all dispute mentioned in Article 36 of the statute of the international court of justice to that court with due regard to the general principles of this treaty.

Article V
This treaty has been concluded in English and Persian language, both the texts being authentic.

Article VI
This treaty shall be ratified and the relative instruments of ratifications will be exchanged in Tehran as soon as possible. Further, this treaty will come into force fifteen days after the exchange of ratified documents.
In view of the above, the representatives have signed and sealed this treaty.

Tehran, dated the ………. 19
For the Government of Iran For the Government of Pakistan

Iran and Pakistan Relation Following the Islamic Revolution of Iran

Pakistan was the first country, to recognized the Islamic revolution of Iran officially. A message was sent on that occasion by Gen. Mohammad Zia ul Haq the then President of Pakistan to Hazrat Imam Khomenie as follows:
Hazrat Ayatullah Roohullah Almoosavi Al Khomenie.
With loftiest reverence and complete felicity I express my deep sentiments and good wishes of the Government and 75 million Muslims of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on the historical occasion of the success of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which has taken place under your leadership. We completely share the joy and felicity of the Iranian brothers on materialization of their lofty dream and in fact their success is also the reflection and answer to the aspirations of all Muslims of the world.
The countries of Iran and Pakistan from a very long time have unbreakable religious, Cultural & historical relations. They have always been sharing each other’s joys and sorrows and been sharing and moving together towards the achievement of common goals and control over the complex dangers.
The proximity and closeness of success with the Islamic ideals in both countries reveals and manifests the organization of our novel spiritual relations and this fact is established that even the internal or external incidents preserve and save our relations as ever and cannot damage them.
We sincerely hope that the cooperation and versatility existing between the two brotherly countries will boost up and be enhanced for the sake of welfare and benefit of the two nations.
I wish you success in your sacred mission of restoration of the real spiritual, cultural & historical grandeur and magnificence. So I pray to Almighty Allah to bestow upon you a longer life, health and complete felicity to help Iranian people achieving the aims of Islamic unity, security, progress and multi dimensional success through your guidance and leadership.
I inform your Excellency that the people of Pakistan will back you in achievement of lofty aims and will co-operate in all matters.
I have the desire to visit you as soon as possible so as to exchange our views regarding the desired and thus hold joint efforts to reach the common goals of the two nations, as a torch of light.
Islamabad 12th Feb 1979.
The response of the leader of Revolution and founder of Islamic Republic of Iran. On 9th Jamadi ULAwal 1399 Hijra, in 1979.
Reply to the message:

In the name of Allah the Merciful

The Excellency, Mohammad Zia ul Haq President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
I was glad to receive your message on the occasion of the foundation of Islamic Republic of Iran.
I thank you for your sentiments regarding the Islamic revolution of Iran. The results of referendum exhibits the powerful intentions of the nation based upon Islamising Iran, and we pray to Almighty Allah that he may grant us grace and success in achieving this end.
The attention and sentiments just from the beginning of our struggle and battles is extremely appreciated by the Iranian nation. And all of us are thankful for the brotherly emotions & pathos of the dear nation of Pakistan, which was expressed through performing demonstrations to support us and sending of telegrams and letters, etc.
I wish the two brotherly nations of Pakistan and Iran who have always been friends and brothers get even closer under the banner of Islam and consolidate their unity and remain two friends in the days to come.
By the help of Almighty Allah the two great nations of Iran and Pakistan moving hand in hand along with other Muslim nations, strengthen their Islamic bonds of unity in the Islamic society.
The Islamic Ummah knows that the only way possible to enjoy security is through unity and the unity of word.
May Almighty Allah bestows upon the dear Pakistani nation progress, success and prosperity.

Rooh Ullah Al Moosavi Al Khomenie

Cultural Relations of Iran and Pakistan after the foundation of Pakistan

It is a fact that the love and attachment is an integral part of the ideological and historical back grounds of the people of the two countries of Pakistan & Iran and this is the very reason why after the independence of Pakistan the two countries have put the promotion and expansion of the cultural relation on the top of the list of their foreign relations programmes and schedules.
The Cultural pact between the two countries was signed in 1955.
And the avenue for mutual cooperation’s was opened and hundreds of students, teachers, and artists were exchanged each year so the Cultural interchanges have been continued on.
At present a great number of Iranian students are studying in various fields of knowledge in the universities and top class schools of Pakistan, and reciprocally a considerable number of Pakistani Students are studying in Iranian universities and educational institutions.
A great number of these students are getting cultural scholarships of the two countries.
Similarly Persian Language and Literature chairs have been established in most of the universities of Pakistan.
More over, Persian is taught on the primary School Level in the country.
The foundation of Cultural Centers of Iran in the cities of Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Quetta, Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Islamabad, and Hyderabad in which a number of Pakistanis learn Persian Language and get informed about the art, and civilization of Iran and Islam and participate in various cultural, artistic congregations shows the depth of the cultural relations of the two countries.
Similarly, Persian classes have been opened in the national centers of Pakistan wherein Pakistani brothers and sisters can learn Persian Language.
In the meanwhile an agreement between the two countries was signed in 1348 shamsi(1969 A.D) so that an Iran- Pakistan common Language Authority for the sake of studies in regard to common cultural heritage of Iran and Pakistan and the restoration, renaissance and propagation of Persian under the title of Iran Pakistan Persian Research Institute be founded in Pakistan.
This center has published and circulated lot many books authored by Pakistani writers and poets.

Foundation of Iran- Pakistan Cultural Relation & society
The opening official cultural activities between the two countries was foundation of cultural relations, of Pakistan and Iran in June 1948. The governer of sindh Shiekh Ghulam Hussain Hidayat ullah was the President and the then Iranian Charge De Affair was the vice President.
Following that, society of Iran and Pakistan relations was founded on 1949 under an official Memorandum, with the approval of prime minister of Iran and by means of a foreign Ministry’s declaration.
Names of some personalities, introduced by the culture Ministry of Iran as members of the society.
1- His Excellency Ali Asgher Hikmat, Foreign Minister of Iran.
2- His Excellency Malik ushoara Behar, University professor.
3- His Excellency Mr. Abbas Iqbal, University professor.
4- His Excellency Dr. Reza Zadeh Shafaq university professor.
5- His Excellency Mr. Saeed Nafeesi, university professor.
6- His Excellency Mr. Badi uzzaman Frozanfar, university professor.
7- His Excellency Ghazanfar Ali khan, the Ambassador of Pakistan.

The Selection of the first Cultural Counsellor of Iran in Pakistan

The Ministry of foreign Affairs of Iran through a letter addressed to Mr. Fazal ur Rehman, Cultura Minister of Pakistan introduced the first Cultural Counsellor of Iran.
His Excellency Fazal Rehman Minister of Culture.
Following due compliments on this occasion Mr. Mohammad Hussain Mashaikh Fareedni is being appointed as the Cultural representative of the great Royal Embassy of Iran in Karachi for the sake of promotion and expansion and consolidation of the ancient cultural relations of the countries of Iran and Pakistan. This ministry avails itself the opportunity to renew the Govt of Pakistan’s assurances of its highest consideration.
The personality concerned being introduced to you is one of the research scholars in Iranian Literature history and a renowned writer, so that you may cooperate and pay special attention in facilitating and promoting of his mission. Renewing the reverences.

                                                                                                Dr. Ali Akbar Siassi
                                                                                 Minister of Foreign Affairs And Plenipotentiary

Conclusion of Cultural Agreement between Iran and Pakistan . 1334 shamsi (1955 A.D)

An agreement in 16 articles was signed on the 1955 between the two countries of Iran and Pakistan as follows:

Text of Cultural agreement between Iran and Pakistan

The Governments of Pakistan And Iran being conscious of the ancient spiritual intellectual, artistic and religious affinities common to them, and being desirous of strengthening and perpetuating the bonds of cultural artistic, and scientific co-operation between the two countries, and inspired by a common desire to establish and foster better understanding between the two brotherly and neighborly nations of Iran and Pakistan.
Have a decided to enter into a Cultural Agreement, and to this end have appointed as their plenipotentiaries the following persons, namely,

Hamidul Haq Chowdury
Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations Representing the Government of Pakistan


Doctor Mahmood Mehran
Minister of Education
Representing the Government of Iran.

Who, having examined each other’s credentials and found them in good and due form, have, agreed as follows:

Article 1
The two Governments will welcome the establishment of Cultural Institutes in each other’s country subject to the laws and regulations governing the establishment of such institutes and the general policy of the Government in whose territory such institutes are established.
By the term “Cultural Institutes” is meant educational centers, libraries, including film libraries and institutions for the promotion of Art, such as Art Galleries or Centers and Art societies.

Article 2
The two Governments will encourage and facilitate, both officially and unofficially, the exchange between their respective countries, of Professors of their Universities and teachers of other educational institutions on terms to be decided upon by a joint committee provided for under Articles 14 hereunder.

Article 3
The two Governments will, as far as possible, ensure the establishment at their Universities or other institutions of higher education, or chairs for the teaching and study of their respective national languages.

Article 4
Each Government will grant to students from the other country facilities for admission to its educational institutions in accordance with regulation in force in its territory.

Article 5
The Governments agree to set up a joint commission of representatives of their respective countries of Education and Universities with the sole responsibility of deciding upon the question of the equivalence of degrees and diplomas. This question all be subject to thorough and periodical examination by the two Governments.

Article 6
The two Governments agree to institute scholarships to enable students of the other country to pursue their studies in institutions situated in their territories. Such studies may be any subject, scientific, technical, literary or other wise.

Article 7
The two Governments will ensure that the syllabuses of their respective educational institutions in History, Geography and Literature include as far as possible, such material as may help to give their students a true idea of the culture and way of life of each other’s country.

Article 8
Each Government will receive, as far as its own resources and requirements may permit, employees of the other Government, or any other person duped by that Government, for training in its scientific, technical and industrial institutions.

Article 9
The two Governments will strive to promote cultural and intellectual exchanges between the two countries by arranging through appropriate learned or cultural bodies concerts, lectures, art and scientific exhibitions, by organizing visits of students, by encouraging collaboration between scientific, artistic and literary societies and other educational organization, by exchange of publications, manuscripts, archaeological specimens and objects of art and by exhibition of films and through broadcasts on their radio.

Article 10
The two Governments will encourage scholars, litterateurs, and artistic in their respective countries to publish and produce works which would help in enlightening the nationals of one country about the other, by holding competitions and granting awards to winning entrants.
Note: The two Government will, however, exercise care to ensure, within the limits of their respective legal provisions, that the text books published in their territory do not contain inaccuracies or malicious material which might have a bearing on either country.

Article 11
The two Governments shall, subject to their foreign exchange regulations and in line with their policy with other countries, ensure the free flow of books and periodicals of one country into the other provided such books and periodicals do not contain melicious material or harmful propaganda.

Article 12
The two Governments will encourage reciprocal visits by cultural, sporting and scouting groups of their respective countries and extend to them all possible facilities to travel within their respective territories, such facilities to include reduced rates of travel on state owned means or transport.

Article 13
The two Governments will encourage the formation of joint social and cultural societies and associations in their respective countries, such societies and associations being subject to the laws and regulations of the country in which they are formed.

Article 14
For the purpose of carrying out the terms of this Agreement, either Government may, if necessary, set up a special commission composed in Iran, of the Minister of Education and the Head of Pakistan Diplomatic Mission in Iran, and in Pakistan, of the Minister of Education and the Head of the Iranian Diplomatic Mission in Pakistan with such advisors as may be nominated by the respective Governments with the object of: -
a). watching the implementation of the agreement in the country concerned.
b). advising the Government concerned on the detailed manner of implementing the agreement.

Article 15
The present Agreement will be ratified in accordance with the respective constitutional procedure of the two Governments and will come into force 15 days after the exchange of the instruments of ratification, which will take place at Tehran.

Article 16
This treaty will remain in force indefinitely unless denounced by either of the two Governments, in which case the agreement shall be held to have terminated six months after one of the two Governments has notified its intention to denounce it.
In faith whereof, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have signed the present Agreement in both the English and the Persian texts both versions being considered equally authentic except in case of doubt when the English text shall prevail.
Done at Karachi the 9th day of March in the year one thousand, nine hindered and fifty-six.

For Pakistan
Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations.

For Iran.
Minister of Education.

                                                     In the Name of Allah, The Compassionate, The Merciful
                                                        Programme of Cultural, Scientific and Technical Exchanges
                                                               The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran
                                                              The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
                                                                  For the years 1382 – 1386 A.II. (2003 – 2007)

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (hereinafter called as “Both Sides”), considering the religious, cultural and historical ties between the two Muslim peoples of Iran and Pakistan, desirous to expand and strengthen bilateral, cultural, scientific and technical relations, inspired by the lofty teachings of Islam, and based on the Cultural Agreement of 1334 A.H. (March 9, 1956) have agreed as follows:

Article 1
Both Sides shall exchange information, experience, books and publications, pictures and slides, films and microfilms, in the field of culture, art, history, literature, archaeology and architecture.
Article 2
Both Sides shall encourage joint research projects in archaeology, architecture, anthropology, traditional arts and exchange of experts in these fields as well as hold photo exhibitions of historical relics and cultural heritage, traditional arts and consume. They shall also exchange information for identifying the new methods of management in the museum and hold exhibition of photographs of historical places and spiritual heritage and traditional dresses and art
Article 3
The National Libraries of two sides shall exchange information, experience, books, and publications, microfilms of manuscripts and experts and trainees and shall cooperate to participate in the book exhibitions, symposiums and workshops for librarians, to pay mutual visits, to conduct joint research, educational and services projects.
Article 4
Both Sides, while exchanging books, publications and films, holding film weeks, participating in the relevant festivals in both countries, introducing and utilizing each other’s possibilities to produce the joint cinematographically films; shall provide the necessary facilities for the other side’s participation in the film markets of the two countries.
Article 5
Both sides shall take the following measures during the validity of this programme:
1. Holding book, paintings exhibitions and puppet shows for children and adolescents, artistic works, handicrafts, personifications, and original paintings printed in the children’s books in each other’s countries for 15 days;
2. Holding of exhibitions of art, handicrafts and calligraphy in each other’s countries.
Article 6
Both Sides shall exchange art groups for the purpose of paying visits and performing programmes. The details shall be specified through mutual agreement.
Article 7
Both Sides shall take necessary measures for identifying the areas of research and becoming familiar with each other’s culture, art and literature by holding literary and art seminars, poetry recital meetings and exchanging artists and researchers.

Article 8
Both Sides shall offer 10 scholarships to each other annually in the fields of social sciences, at the M.A. and Ph.D. levels (At the present time the Iranian side shall only use scholarships at the Ph.D. level).
Article 9
The Iranian side shall offer one scholarship annually in the fields of Persian language and literature for study of doctorate degree in Iran to the teachers of the departments of National Institute of Modern Languages, Islamabad. All expenses pertinent to scholarships on travel, boarding and lodging shall be covered by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Article 10
The Pakistani side shall offer two scholarships annually for study of Urdu language and literature at post – graduate level in Pakistan for nominees of Government of IRI on terms and conditions to be settled by mutual consultation.
Article 11
The Iranian side shall provide the services of at least two teachers capable to teach Persian at post-graduate level in educational institutions in Pakistan on honorary basis for a period of two years, as well as take measures to hold short-term courses of Persian calligraphy and language.
Article 12
Both Sides shall develop their academic linkages between the selected universities for promoting research and teaching.
Article 13
Both Sides shall exchange information on each other’s secondary, high school and higher education systems to determine equivalence of educational certificates, diplomas and degrees.
Article 14
Both Sides shall exchange experts and expertise in the field of examinations and allied fields in order to improve the system of examinations and the method of controlling malpractices.
Article 15
Both Sides shall encourage the participation of educationists, researchers, policy makers and curriculum experts in the relevant seminars and conferences.
Article 16
Both Sides, in the course of the validity of this programme, shall provide the necessary facilities for the expansion of technological cooperation between the relevant centers in the two countries.
Article 17
Both Sides shall encourage to holding of a seminar on Iqbal, Sa’adi and Hafiz in each of the two countries for enhanced interaction between researchers and intellectuals of each other.
Article 18
Both Sides may translate documents and articles on culture, literature and history of both the countries and exchange the same with each other.
Article 19
Both Sides shall encourage the joint researches in the fields of culture, history and social sciences as well as the exchange of researchers in these fields. Each Government will provide the necessary facilities for the researchers.
Article 20
Both Sides, in the course of the validity of this programme, shall exchange delegations and experts in the scientific, educational, health, treatment and pharmacological fields on reciprocal basis.
Article 21
Both Sides, for the purpose of the expansion and enhancement of mutual cooperation, shall exchange information in the following fields:
1) Educational programming, text books writing, methods of evaluation
2) Technology of technical and vocational education, education of retarded people
3) Training in the field of environment, population and school health care
Article 22
Both Sides, in the course of this programme, while establishing connection and cooperation between pupil organizations of the two countries, and within Associates School Projects of Unesco shall support connections and the exchange of information through Internet among five high schools of the two countries.

Article 23
Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC)/ Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) shall cooperate in various fields including technical, programming for news and training, etc. Details would be determined after visits of respective delegates to both the countries. Some of cooperation fields are as follows:
a) Exchange of documentary films, documents, microfilms and photographs.
b) Using of the networks of the two countries for the broadcasting and telecast of films relating to each other, supplying and production on suitable programmes.
c) Broadcast/ telecast of programmes on the occasion of the special days of either country.
d) Technical exchanges and cooperation including training facilities for the programme and engineering personnel according to available resources.
e) Production of joint programmes about religious, cultural and historical commonalties in the two countries.
f) Cooperation with regard to continuation of the functions of the representatives of Radio and Television in both countries.
Article 24
Both Sides, while expressing their desire over expansion of cooperation between their national News Agencies, stress the need for signing separate agreements between IRNA and APP.
Both sides agree on professional co-operation between their national news agencies within the Framework of news, technical and training activities at the bilateral level as well as in the context of the activities of regional and International news agencies.
Both sides shall provide necessary assistance and facilities to each other’s resident, traveling and visiting correspondents.
Article 25
Both sides shall facilitate the functions of reporters stationed in each country regarding transmission of news and press activities.

Article 26
Both Sides shall encourage tourism by exchanging information and experiences and providing the necessary facilities and shall also reduce formalities for the visit of tourists within the two countries laws and regulations.
Article 27
The Pakistan Institute of Tourism and Hotel Management (PITHM) Karachi, presently imparting training in various segments of Hospitality and Travel Trade, shall welcome Iranians for training in its regular courses, provided necessary funds are made available either by the sponsoring agency or by the trainees themselves (details of the training courses being conducted by the Institute shall be exchanged through bilateral channels).
Article 28
Both Sides shall encourage reciprocal participation of sport teams and groups in the Sports events, international matches and festivals held on different occasions in both countries.
Article 29
Both Sides shall provide the necessary facilities for the promotion on sports through the exchange of books, publications, films and participation in the sports seminars.
Article 30
Both Sides shall exchange information and experience in the field of making sports equipment and shall provide the necessary facilities for supplying the sports items in both countries.
Article 31
Both Sides shall exchange trainers of the applied fields and shall hold training classes for them and for the referees in short term periods.

Article 32
Both Sides, during the validity of this programme, while exchanging information and experiences in youth affairs, shall exchange delegations comprising the youth and adolescents on a reciprocal basis. The number, time and dates of visits shall be decided through mutual consultations.

Article 33
During the validity of the programme, the two sides while exchanging the latest data and scientific findings shall exchange researchers and experts involved in pharmaceutical products, medical treatment and medical equipment.
Article 34
Both Sides shall cooperate in holding joint seminars and carrying out joint research projects in the sanitation and medical fields.
Article 35
Both Sides shall cooperate in the area of first aid care and preventive health services, especially in families, through dispatching mutual experts groups for the purpose of studying health services systems of the two countries and mechanism of evaluating and supervising medical institutions.
Article 36
Both Sides shall cooperate in the area of medical training, medical and health issues.
Article 37
Both Sides for the purpose of the expansion and promotion of the mutual cooperation, while holding exhibitions on information, medical books and publications, shall encourage mutual and active cooperation between the universities and centers for scientific activities, research, medical sciences and paramedical in order to utilize the two countries information and experiences.
Article 38
Both Sides shall establish a joint committee for the purpose of preventing the spread of diseases including epidemiological diseases, with the attendance of senior experts and authorities of the two countries alternatively within the period of the year (at least twice a year, once in Iran and the other time in Pakistan).
Article 39
Invitation of the members of academic boards and lecturers of the two countries to transfer their latest scientific achievements to be represented at the international level and the possibility of offering facilities and coordination in the fields of medical training and holding long and short terms training courses and providing sabbatical leaves.
Article 40
Both Sides shall cooperate on the exchange of information and experiences in the field of pharmacy, vaccination and their raw materials. To this mean, the Iranian side shall announce the readiness of its pharmaceutical industries for he joint investigation with the Pakistani side to produce medicine and raw materials.

Article 41
The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Ministry of Housing and Works of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan shall cooperate in the areas of planning and development for housing and civil engineering with particular reference to earthquake, constructing technology, building material, manufacturing of construction equipment and urban development, etc through the following ways :
Exchange of books and periodicals as well as related/relevant information and convening of specialized symposia, seminars, workshops and exhibitions; and Exchange of professionals in the relevant fields in order to get familiarized with each other’s technical and specialized capabilities and also attending short term training courses. The details shall be worked out through the agreement between the relevant bodies.

Article 42
The articles of this programme shall not stop the performance of the other programmes, which shall be agreed upon through the other ways of the respective countries.
Article 43
All the activities envisaged in this programme shall be carried out in accordance with the current laws and regulations of the respective countries.
Article 44
The requests related to the research and scientific reviews shall be given to the other side through the formal channel at least two months before the proposed date. The requests should include the educational background of the applicants, the duration of stay and the desired places for visiting.
Article 45
The exchanges during the currency of this programme shall be introduced by the sending side through the formal channel to the receiving side.
Article 46
The costs of supplying films, microfilms and copies of the historical and cultural documents shall be paid by the requesting country.
Article 47
The costs of transportation of delegates and visitors shall be paid by the sending side and the costs of housing, food and local transportation shall be paid by the receiving side.
Article 48
The costs of transportation of the personal equipment of the art groups shall be paid by the sending side and the costs of the housing, food and local transportation as well as suitable place of exhibition shall be paid by the receiving side.
Article 49
The costs of transportation and insurance of exhibits to and from the receiving country shall be undertaken by the sending side and the receiving country shall pay for the local transportation and insurance. It shall also pay for the suitable place of the exhibition.
Article 50
The receiving country shall provide free emergency medical care for delegations and the sending side shall pay for the long-term period treatment and important surgery operations.
Article 51
Details would be worked out with mutual consultations.
Done in Islamabad on the 4th day of March, 2004 in two original copies , in English and Persian in VIII chapters and 51 articles, both being equally authentic.
This programme shall come into force from the date of its signature for four years.


H.E Rais Munir Ahmed

Minister for Minorities, Culture,
Sports, Tourism and Youth Affairs Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan


 H.E. Ahmed Khorram

Minister for Road and Transport For the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran


  1. Hekmat Prof. AlI Asghar, Sarzamin-i-Hind, Tehran University, Tehran, 1337, 1958, p.36.
  2. Shehabi, Khorasani Ali Akbar, Rawabit-i-Iran-o-Hind, Tebran, 1376/ 1937, p.58. Also see Foreword by Prof Mohammad Moqaddam on Dr. Ba Hiader Shahryar Naqvi’s Farhang Nevisiya Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan, Minstry of Education, Tehran, 1341/1962, p.19.
  3. For example, see Farsnameye lbn-i-Balkhi, edited by R.A. Nicholson, Cambridge, 1339 A.H. /1921 A.D. 25,28 & 50, Masudi, Muruj-al-Dhahab, Beirut, 1965, A.D, II, p.132, Maqdisi, al-Bad’ va al-Mamalik, Persian tr. by Ibne Savaji, published by Iraj Afshar, printed at Tehran University, Tehran, 1340/1961, p.32.
  4. For further information see Mustafavi, Mohammad Taqi, and Sami, Ali, Takht-i-Jamshid, Shiraz, 1334/1955, pp, 39,63,70 & 88; and Persian Tr. By Dr. Abdullah & others, Franklin, Tehran, 1342/1973.
  5. History of Herodotus, Persian Translation by Dr. Hedayat, Tehran University, Tehran, 1339-40/1960-61.
  6. Tabari, Mohammad Járir, Tarikh, al- Umam va al -Muluk,Leiden, 1964, I,p.66; and Ibn-i-Miskawayh, ‘Tajarib al-Umam, “Leiden, 1909, I,p. 153.
  7. Ibn-i-Balkhi, “Farsname’ op. cit., p.97.
  8. “Mujmal al-Tawarikh” by an unknown author, published by Malik al Shu’ara Bahar, Tehran, 1318/1939.
  9. Mustaufi, Hamdullah, “Tarikh-i-Guzide”, Tehran, 1362/1983.
  10. Ali b. Mohammad b. Bal’ami, “Tarikh-i-Bal’ami7” Tehran, 1341 /1 962, pp. 1098-1099.
  11. Shustary A.M.A., Outlines of Islamic Culture, Lahore, 1966, I,pp. 30-31.
  12. Akram, Dr. Sayyid Mohammad, Maqalat-i –Farsi, Lahore, 1350/1971, p.36.
  13. Kufi, Ali Fath Nameye Sind, Delhi, 1939, p.174. Also see Zuka ullah, Shamsul Ulama’ Maulavi Mohammad, Tarikh-i-Hind, (Urdu), Delhi, 1907, 1, P.186.
  14. Mustaufi, Hamdullah, Nuzhat-al-Qulub, Tehran, 1336/1957, p.111; Ibn-i-Khurdazbeh, al-Masalik va al-Mamalik, Leiden, 1906, p.131.
  15. Panahi, (Dr.) Ali, article in Maqalat-i-Farsi, op. cit., p.36.
  16. Hindushah, Mohammad Qasim, Tarikh-i-Firishte, Nawal Kishore, Lucknow, 1281 A.H./1865 A.D., p.18.
  17. Ibn-i-Hauqal, Surat al-Ard, Leiden, 2nd Ed., 1939, p.325.
  18. Al-Maqdisi, Ahsan al-Taqasim, Leiden 1906, p.380.
  19. Tarikh-i-Yamini Persian tr. by Abu al-Sharaf b. Zafar Jurbadqani, Tehran, 1357/1978, pp.27-33.
  20. Siddiq, Isa (Dr.), Tarikh-i-Farhang-i-Iran, Tehran, 1331/1952, p.113.
  21. Aufi, Mohammad, Lubab al-Albab, Tehran, 1958, p.71 Also see Ahmad, Zuhuruddin (Dr.), Pakistan mein Farsi Adab, (Urdu), Lahore, 1964, I, p.38.
  22. Al-Hujviri al-Jallabi, Abul Hasan Sayyid Ali b. Usman, alias Data Ganj Bakhsh. His tomb, full of (divine) lights, is in Lahore. It has been throughout history flourishing and glittering, and even now it entertains devotees and visitors. It has a number of Persian inscriptions. See the section on Lahore in this book. For further information about the biography of Hujviri, see Rahman Ali, Tazkera-i-Ulama-i-Hind, Lucknow, 1916, p. 59.
  23. Baqar Mohammad, Lahore Fast & Present, Lahore, 1952. Also see Lane-Poole, Stanley, Mohammadan Dynasties, Persian tr.: Tabaqat-i-Salatin-i Islam by Abbas Iqbal, Tehran, 1363/1984, pp. 259-60.
  24. Aufi, Mohammad, Lubab al-Albab, op. cit., II, p.241.
  25. For further information see Safa, Zabihollah (Dr.), Tarikh-i-Adabiyyat-i-Iran, Tehran, 2nd Ed., 1363/1984, II, pp.470-71.
  26. Ibid., II, p.470.
  27. Ibid., II, p. 666.
  28. Ibid., I, p. 449.
  29. Jami, Abdul Rahman Maulana, Nafahat al-Uns, Indian Ed., p.564.
  30. Hedayat, Reza Qoli, Majma’al-Fusaha, Tehran, 1336/1957, p.222.
  31. Ahsan, Abdul Shakur (Dr.), article: “Farsi Sarmayeye Farhangiye ma” in the book Farsi dar Pakistan, Lahore, 1350/1971, p.22.
  32. For further information, see Safa, Zabihollah (Dr.), Tarikh…… op. cit., I, p. 5.
  33. Juzjani, Qazi Minhaj Siraj, Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Lahore, 1954, p.36.
  34. Ahmad., Khwaja Nizamuddin, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Calcutta, 1927-31, 1, P.37.
  35. For further information, see Aufi, Mohammad, Javami al-Hikayat, Tehran University Publication, 1335/1956, introduction by Dr. Mohammad Mo’in.
  36. Sarwar, Ghulam (Dr.), Tarikh-i-Zaban-i-Farsi, Karachi, 1962, p. 73.
  37. Nowshahrvi, Abu Yahya Imam Khan, Nuzhat al-Khawatir-, Urdu tr. by Lukhnavi Abdul Hayy, Lahore, 1967, p.33.
  38. Lane Poole, Stanley, ……… Tabaqat...., op. cit., p.268.
  39. Ibid., p.268.
  40. Afif Shams Siraj, Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi, Jamia Usmania, Hyderabad Deccan, 1938, I,p352.
  41. lbn-i-Batuta, Safarname, Persian tr. by Mohammad Ali Movahhed, Tehran, 1337/1958, II, p.462.
  42. For further information, see Riyaz, Mohammad (Dr.), Ahwal-o-Asar-i-Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Iran- Pakistan Persian Studies Centre, Islamabad, 1991, p.46.
  43. Ibid., pp. 48-49.
  44. Hindushah, Mohammad Qasim, Tarikh-i-Firishte, op. cit., I, p. 273.
  45. Lane Poole, Stanley,..., Tabaqat...op.cit.,p.269.
  46. Ibid., p.273.
  47. Ibid., pp. 274-292.
  48. Ibid., p. 297.
  49. Fakhri Herati, Persian tr. Majalis al-Funun, Tehran, 1323/1944; Browne, E.G., Literary History of Persia, Cambridge, 1956, pp.445-428; Hindushah..., Thrikh-i-Firishte, op. cit., I, pp. 353, 396.
  50. Haig, Lt. Col. Sir Wolseley, The Cambridge History of India, Delhi Lucknow, 1957, IV, pp. 13,17-18 & 39.
  51. Fakhri Herati, tr. Majalis.., op., cit., p. 175; Tarikh-i-Firishte, op. cit., I, pp.396, 412; Azar, Lutf Ali Beg, Atashkade, Bombay, 1277 A.H, (1861 A. D.), pp. 28-29; Hedayat, Reza Qoli, Riyaz al-Arefin, Tehran, 1305/1926, p.62.
  52. Tarikh-i-Firishte, op. cit., I, p.243.
  53. Rezavi, Sayyid Sibte Hasan [Dr.], Farsi Guyan-i-Pakistan, Iran-Pakistan Persian Studies, Centre Islamabad, 1353/1974, I, p. 25.
  54. Isfahani, Mirza Mohammad Taher, Tazkeraye Nasrabadi, Tehran, 1317/1938, pp. 55-56.
  55. Allami. Abul Fazl, Akbar Name, Calcutta, 1873, pp. 172 & 180.
  56. Shibli Numani, , Allame, She’r al-Ajam, (Urdu), Azam Garh, (India), 1337 A.H. / 1919 A.D., III, p.165.
  57. Ghalib, Mirza Asadullah, Kulliyyat, Shaikh Mubarak Ali, Lahore,1965, p.604.
  58. Makatib-i-Iqbal, ed. by S. Rahman, Lahore, 1954, p.16.
  59. (1)و(2):ر ک به راهنما و مشخصات معاهدات دوجانبه ایران با سایر ملل- دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین المللی تهران- ص430-431

      Department of International and Political Studies, Tehran, pp. 430.

  1. Ibid., 431.
  2. Naqavi, Sayyid Ba Haider Shahryar [Dr.], Farhang Navisiye Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan, op. cit., pp. 40-43.
  3. Rezavi, Sayyid Sibte Hasan [Dr.], Farsi Guyan-i-Pakistan, op. cit.
  4. Naqavi, Sayyid Ali Reza (Dr.), Tazkere Nevisiye Farsi dar Hind-o-Pakistan, Elmi, Tehran, 1964, pp. six-twelve.

65. Munzavi, Ahmad, (فهرستواره کتابهائی خطی فارسی ) (Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts),

     Iran-Pakistan Persian Studies Centre, Islamabad; and other Catalogues of Persian books published by the same Centre.

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